Special Interest Section: Fall 2020

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Introduction

Author: Petra Davidson, R. EEG/EP T., CLTM, FASET 

Happy Fall! Greetings to friends, colleagues, and soon-to-be friends. 

As so many of us are embracing new ways to attend educational events for ourselves, our children or grandchildren, and others, we are learning new technology and new ways to connect and make meaningful impacts on the world around us in a safe manner. We asked our Special Interest Section Leaders to help us share how they were preparing for education this fall. We wanted to know how they were improving their patient education, challenging themselves and coworkers to reach that next educational goal and honing that perfect elevator talk to strangers about what we do.  

Personally, I have been using this time to reach out to colleagues across the NDT universe to aid them in the preparation of the CLTM certification. I have a yearning, a deep, unquenchable desire to help others learn. I have been employing my teaching talents to reach students in a unique manner. I am also actively working on my COMP TIA A+ certification for my role as an IT Liaison.  

Many of you understand our field is filled with the very best educators who fervently work to continue sharing their vast knowledge in neurodiagnostics. However, they aren’t able to do it alone. So each of us, with our unique experiences in education and learning, should reach out to one or two others to help them understand difficult concepts in new ways.  

Here are a few slices of delicious pumpkin pie from the amazing articles written by our section leaders! You don’t want to miss a single bit of these inspiring articles from which these quotes originated. 

Dorothy Gaiter, Nerve Conduction Studies – “The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education.” ~Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.~ 

Janna Cheek, Technologist Entrepreneurs – Now I am finding that by just changing materials, colors, and a bit of bling, you draw in looks, reads, and conversations that educate people on the extent and depth of the NDT industry.   

Vicki Sexton, Clinical EEG – In conclusion, I always try to treat the patient as if they were my parent or child. People always know when you genuinely care. 

Susan Hollar, Epilepsy Monitoring – Every opportunity to share your knowledge and passion for the field is an opportunity to recruit or make your life easier in the daily work world. 

Stephanie Jordan, Department Managers – To sincerely say that you are sorry for what they are going through lets the patient know that you are here to help them and shows that you respect them as a human being. 

Jeff Balzer, IONM – We cannot continue to accept adequacy but need to demand superior and outstanding support for our technologists and from our technologists. We need to demand excellence, and as the technologist, you need to demand an excellent education. 

Melanie Sewkarran, Pediatrics & Neonatology – Don’t ever forget that education is power, and in the case of our patients and their families, hopefully, adds some peace. 

Magdelena Warzecha, Epilepsy Monitoring – As neurodiagnostic professionals, we should take every opportunity to educate others about our field — the tests we perform, why they are important for our patients and physicians, and why these tests must be performed by qualified personnel. 

Talk to you all soon! Take care, and stay well.


Acute/Critical Care Neurodiagnostics

Author: A. Todd Ham, BS, R. EEG T., CLTM

High-Frequency Filter Exercise: Assign the appropriate filter settings to each channel test epoch.  The answer choices are: 15 Hz; 30 Hz; 50 Hz and 70 Hz.

Low-Frequency Filter Exercise: Assign the appropriate filter settings to each channel test epoch.  The answer choices are: Off; 0.1 Hz; 0.5 Hz; 1 Hz; 3Hz and 5 Hz.

Answers

  • HF Filter: 15 Hz = B., 30 Hz = D., 50 Hz = A., 70 Hz = C.
  • LF Filter: OFF = B., 0.1 Hz = C., 0.5 Hz = A., 1 Hz = E., 3Hz = F., 5 Hz = D.

 

Ambulatory Monitoring

Author: Christine Blodgett, MA, R. EEG/EP T., CLTM, FASET 

The themes for this newsletter are back to school and educating our patients and customers.  As we all know; nothing is normal about this school year.  With more and more people working from home these days, and children attending school online in the current climate of a global pandemic, it is likely that many of you reading this have had to make some serious adjustments to the way you approach your work and home life.  Personally, I can say that it has certainly been interesting but at the end of the day, we as humans are very adept at adapting to change.  I am fortunate that I was working from home before the pandemic started, so I was already well-versed in how to operate in this way.  My husband who usually travels frequently for his work has now been relegated to the home office, so we are all lucky to be seeing even more of each other than usual.  Honestly, it’s all about finding the silver lining.  None of us wants to be alone or isolated and sometimes working or studying from home without the social interactions most of us crave is depressing.  With that being said, we do have the technology to make this experience a lot more positive.  I have found the most important key to success in working from home is to have as much face time as possible with your staff and coworkers.  Despite everyone’s fear of the dreaded Zoom video meeting, it actually is useful and worth getting dressed (at least from the waist up) and putting on your makeup on for.   

In terms of Ambulatory EEG during these uncertain times, how are we preparing our patients for us to enter their homes to perform this test?   This is a tough one as there is a lot of fear out there around the spread of COVID-19 Is it safe for us?  Is it safe for them?  How important is the study or can it wait until we do feel safe?  The decision to go forward and perform these studies has to be based upon the mutual trust that each of us (tech and patient) will be honest about our symptoms and exposures, take the appropriate precautions and follow CDC guidelines to protect ourselves and each other.   

The reality is that our patients need our help and they need it now.  Epilepsy was not put on hold with the pandemic even though many normal hospital operations were ground to a complete halt in order to care for infected patients.  Epilepsy monitoring units closed down and patients were forced to wait.  In the interim, what were they to do?  ACNS recently published resources stating that in-home Ambulatory Video EEG should be considered over hospital visits as a safer alternative.  Even now, hospitals are still restricted and have long waitlists, so we are very fortunate that we have the option of in-home testing to care for our patients that desperately need our services.  With that being said, I would like to give a shout out to all of you NDT professionals going to work every day despite the risk to do what you love and care for others.  Thank you for everything that you do!


Clinical EEG

Vicki Sexton, B.S., R. EEG/EP T., R.NCS,T., CLTM, CNCT, FASET.

So this fall’s newsletter’s topic is primarily about education.  One of the subjects is how we educate our patients. 

I’ve always felt the need to educate the patients when they came in for an EEG or other modalities.  

It’s pretty scary, even for an adult, to have someone put wires on their head and tell them we will monitor your brain activity!  So I would always start out by introducing myself and my title.  I would then quickly talk about having the test done myself as a student, and I know how it feels.  Every step during the hookup, I would explain what I was doing and how it would feel.  

While I was applying the electrodes, I would explain to them that I was going to ask them to do certain things during the test, such as eyes open/eyes close, hyperventilation, questions, and photic. I would always encourage sleep.  Because of the trust level by the time we started the test, most patients felt comfortable enough to fall asleep. I would also explain how long each section took to know how much longer they had left into the hookup, study, and clean up. Since most patients are pretty savvy about their healthcare, I would also tell them how long I have been doing EEG’s or whatever test I was providing. I would also mention how I was registered in the modality in which I was executing. That also helped with knowing they were getting the best care. Even with my comatose patients, I would always explain what I was doing to them, just in case they were able to hear me. 

In conclusion, I always try to treat the patient as if they were my parent or child. People always know when you genuinely care.


Department Managers 

Author: Stephanie Jordan, R. EEG/EP T., CNIM, CLTM 

As we prepare for our NDT students to return next month for their clinical education with us, we ask ourselves what we can teach through experience that is not appreciated fully in a book or during an online classroom. 

Compassion: What is the patient experiencing? 

A patient does not have the same understanding of the EEG procedure as you do, therefore, you must explain the procedure slowly and carefully at an ageappropriate level to relieve patient anxiety. The patient is coming to the lab with the feeling that something is amiss with their health, requiring that this test was ordered; to calm the patient is to acquire a better exam without muscle and movement artifact. Acknowledge that patient’s feelings around the exam, particularly with the health issue surrounding it. To sincerely say that you are sorry for what they are going through lets the patient know that you are here to help them and shows that you respect them as a human being.  

Patience: Take a deep breath and give it an extra few minutes 

Don’t rush through the exam but take the time to make your patient feel comfortable and feel that you will allow the proper amount of time that is needed to acquire a thorough exam. Your patient may have traveled a fair distance and may have had difficulty finding their way to the lab. If they arrive late for their appointment, they may have not met their basic needs for water, food, or relief before arriving. Do not make them feel wrong for arriving late but instead make them feel welcome. Allow them time to take care of their needs prior to the exam, ensuring a more successful test. 

Perseverance: Keep trying and don’t give up 

Our patients have special needs which require our perseverance. Neurologic diseases affect patient thought process and ability to cooperate. Distraction and redirecting can make the difference between completing the exam or not. Allow the patient to become accustomed to the testing room. For autistic patients or patients with other neurologic disabilities, allow them time to get used to a new space before introducing a new person in their environment prior to starting the exam. Demonstrating the electrode application on a favorite toy, support person, your hand or theirs can help alleviate fear. If the patient brushes off your electrode try again and don’t give up. It is better to spend the appointment time attempting the EEG even if unsuccessful than to simply give up after a few attempts. The support person with the patient will often need your encouragement, professionalism, and compassion if the test cannot be achieved after all means are exhausted. Let them know that this diagnostic test does not preclude treatment; the patient can still receive medical help. 

Communication: Includes asking for help, clarifying questions, repeating/restating 

Communicating clearly applies to both the patient and the student’s mentor. To complete an accurate history, the patient may be asked the same question in a different way. For example, if you ask the patient when their last seizure was, the patient may not be able to come up with a date; but if asked if it was 2 days, 2 weeks or 2 months ago, you may get a more accurate account. When asking what medications the patient takes, the patient may not know the name but you can ask what the medication is taken for. When explaining the test process, use simple terms with visual cues. Show the measuring tape and marking pencil when explaining head measurement and marking. Demonstrate the marking pencil on your hand. Show the skin prep and cotton swab prior to cleaning the scalp, demonstrate on the hand if appropriate. Show the electrode with paste in the cup and demonstrate how it lays on the scalp through parted hair by applying to the hand first. Reassure the patient that everything comes off with water, it may seem simple enough to you that water-soluble is an understood term but to an anxious or younger patient it is not.  

When working with your mentor, never feel as if there is a “wrong” question. Terminology from lab to lab can differ from what you learn in books. The more the student asks, the more engaged and invested the student appears to be. There are no wrong questions. Only indifference can prevent you from learning all you can. If you do not understand your mentor’s meaning, ask for an explanation. Communicate to your mentor what your goals are, and they can tailor your learning experience to be compatible. Your mentor has agreed with their employer that this time with you is valuableit is up to you through clear communication to make it valuable to yourself.


Epilepsy Monitoring

Author: Susan Hollar, MBA, R. EEG T. 

Educating others about Neurodiagnostic testing brings out my passion for the field. It is exciting to introduce the science to those who are curious and intrigued by what we encompass in our work. It still remains one of the most unknown fields of diagnostic testing. I am still amazed on a daily basis how the field is utilizing new science to better the field. 

Working at an academic medical center allows for many opportunities to educate and be educated. I literally learn something new every day. A joy and challenge of an academic center is the ever changing people you work with. The change every year brings new students, residents, and staff into our work family. It is exciting to teach the students and residents about our field and what it takes to perform excellent quality studies. 

On the EEG rotation, students and residents shadow a technologist. Once they have shadowed, read the instructions for application of the 10-20 system, they attempt to hook up one of their peers. This is a most valuable exercise for them to learn just how challenging it can be. Yes, there is much more than “slapping on” a couple of leads and running it for 5 minutes. We also share our study materials for the boards with the residents preparing for their Neurophysiology boards. They are always amazed by the material technologists must know to pass the boards.

Every opportunity to share your knowledge and passion for the field is an opportunity to recruit or make your life easier in the daily work world.

Author: Magdalena Warzecha, R. EEG/EP T., CLTM 

As an EEG technologist, I am constantly reminded how little is known to the public about Neurodiagnostics. I frequently find myself explaining what it is we do, not just to patients, but also to friends, family members, and even to nurses and other medical professionals. I work for an in-home EEG monitoring company; our technologists go to patients’ homes to set them up with ambulatory EEGs, which are then monitored by registered techs for 24 hours up to 7 days or longer. While many epilepsy patients are familiar with routine EEG, they often have not had an EEG done overnight or in the home.

At each appointment, our techs explain the EEG procedure to patients, instruct them how to mark and document events, inform them of what they can and cannot do while their EEG is being recorded, stressing the importance of staying on camera and communicating with the monitoring team. The overwhelming majority of our patients appreciate having their ambulatory EEG done in the comfort of their own home, especially during COVID-19, because it makes them feel safer. In-home EEG is also significantly less stressful than hospital EEG for pediatric and special needs patients and their parents.  Patients with epilepsy or neurological disorders and their families learn about neurodiagnostic tests through their own experiences. Sometimes they are interested to know more about the field. However, they represent a small fraction of the population aware of our profession.    

One of my all-time favorite experiences of educating the public about our field was at a career fair in my son’s high school district I attended last winter. I brought ASET brochures about careers in neurodiagnostics, flyers from local Neurodiagnostic programs and our company’s info to my booth. For over three hours, I spoke with high school juniors and seniors interested in medical careers, explaining neurodiagnostics and all the amazing possibilities for growth our field offers. Ninety-nine percent of these students did not know the career existed, and many left the fair very interested in the neurodiagnostic program with intentions to apply.  As neurodiagnostic professionals, we should take every opportunity to educate others about our field, about tests we perform, and why they are important for our patients and physicians, as well as why it is crucial that these tests are performed by qualified personnel. The young people looking for a rewarding career should be shown opportunities for career growth and making a difference in the lives of our patients.


Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (IONM)

Author: Jeffrey R. Balzer, Ph.D., FASNM, DABNM 

Educational Goals in IONM: You Can’t Be Too Educated

It has been five years since I last wrote about the education of IONM technologists After reviewing the content from the 2015 article, I realized that the situation has not drastically changed, although there are some bright spots to report with regards to IONM education. Unfortunately, it remains, that unlike most healthcare professions, if you ask 10 IONM technologists about their didactic education and clinical training you will probably get 10 different answers.  As such, the IONM field has a heterogeneous collection of technologists who, despite potentially having a CNIM, have had very different levels of didactic preparatory, clinical, and continuing educational training. Because of the inconsistency in training models, the IONM field has technologists caring for patients with varying degrees of experience and clinical competency.  

Now is the time for our field to not only offer advanced formalized didactic training but come together and create a standardized curriculum for both preparatory didactic and clinical education and continuing education. The path to advanced competency, beyond the CNIM certification, and ongoing education, needs to be consistent and traveled by all who provide IONM technical services. While the CNIM examination can be held out as a metric of competency, its prerequisites and content make it nothing more than an entry-level credential. In addition to advanced didactic training, clinical training and exposure need to be expanded to include exposure to IONM performed in cases of varying disciplines and complexity. Too often I get a call and hear “I only do spine but tomorrow I am doing an acoustic neuroma, can you give me some pointers” This is terrifying as experienced technologists are often asked to monitor cases they have never seen, independently performed or, the point of this article, have never received formal didactic or clinical training to perform.  This is despite having a CNIM! 

With a potential lack of well-rounded and qualified IONM technologist and an increase in the utilization of telemedicine to allow for the contemporaneous oversight and interpretation of IONM, the personnel often recognizing significant change and passing along any and all information once a change has been recognized and interpreted is the IONM technologist.  Why is it important to assert that this is the model?  IONM technologists are not just technicians; the technologist plays a critical, perhaps the most critical, role in the care of the patient.  To this end, their training, education, and knowledgebase need to be extensive to meet the demand and expectations of the surgical teams and to provide the highest quality service to the patient. 

I have always said that if you have a criticism, then please have a suggestion or solution about how to fix the perceived problem. So how do we raise the educational bar? The good news is that there are now, albeit a few, IONM training programs associated with universities that confer bachelor’s degrees with a concentration in IONM.  There are also a few free-standing IONM programs that provide didactic training. Some of these programs provide clinical rotations and training at their institutions which gives them the ability to expose students to a variety of cases. Other programs charge the student with finding a clinical site and have less control over case variety and qualityThe good news is that in both instances, education is being formalized to include didactic coursework salient to the IONM profession. For example, full-credit neuroanatomy and neurophysiology coursework is commonplace in these programs as well as courses specifically designed to address neuroanesthesia, IONM, and hands-on lab courses to familiarize the student with equipment and electrode placement. In the absence of these programs, IONM technologists may or may not have any formal, accredited classroom training in IONMIt is also the case that some private IONM companies have stepped up their internal didactic and clinical training. These examples of formal and more extensive didactic and clinical IONM training are a big step in the right direction. 

The field now needs to address the standardization of this training. Disparities in training lie mostly in the clinical exposure domain. To that end, I have a couple of potential solutions to address this disparity. In an attempt to make clinical training more consistent and extensive, perhaps consideration of a CNIM credential differentiation between basic IONM (e.g., spine and ENT) and advanced IONM (e.g., brain vascular, cardiac, and advanced spine) designations based on the basic and complex IONM cases performance be considered. An alternative solution could also be reached by requiring that the case log (150 cases) be increased and expanded to include cases from various IONM categories (i.e., ENT, spine, cranial, peripheral nerve) thereby allowing for a single CNIM designation to designate overall competence in IONM. This would ensure that before sitting for the examination, candidates would be exposed to a wide variety and a minimum number of surgical procedures for which IONM services are provided. These changes would also force employers and/or training programs to develop clinical exposure so that technologists were not being pushed across the finish line with bare-minimum training and exposure to IONM performed in only 1 or 2 different procedures. 

Education beyond the minimum standards that are currently required and utilized for an IONM technologist to participate in patient care requires significant improvement.  As mentioned above, from an educational perspective, IONM training should begin with the fundamental notion that the technologist is often the on-site eyes, ears, and mouth of the oversight neurophysiologist.  Moreover, they may be asked to provide services in procedures ranging from thyroidectomy to supratentorial tumor resection requiring phase reversal and DCS. In addition to the training and education that technologists currently might have, a fundamental understanding of several other IONMrelated topics needs to be taught.  These include a basic understanding of radiological studies, the ability to intelligently review and convey information concerning a patient’s history and physical, and certainly understanding of the surgical procedure and medical terminology related to the procedure.  Beyond these aspects of required knowledge, technologists also should have an extensive understanding of each surgical procedure they are monitoring, including procedures other than spine cases, Pathology, anesthetic approach, the surgical procedure itself, the goals of the surgical procedure, and the advantages and limitations of the IONM being utilized during the case also need to be appreciated.  We need to produce a better IONM product and that improvement begins with the recognition and admission that it’s a good thing if the technologist is armed with this kind of knowledge and information and displays superb critical thinking skills. The field needs to come together with some consensus and standardization concerning what this model will look like. 

Moving forward, we must begin by doing a better job educating and standardizing coursework and clinical exposure. It is our responsibility to ensure that the educational and knowledge bar is raised for the technologist so that this quality is translated into even better patient care.  As I said five years ago, the time is now, and the responsibility is ours.  We cannot continue to accept adequacy but need to demand superior and outstanding support for our technologists and from our technologists.  We need to demand excellence and as the technologist, you need to demand a superior education.


Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) 

Author: Dorothy Gaiter, MHA, R. EEG T., CNCT, R.NCS.T., FASET 

“Knowledge is power. Information is liberating. Education is the premise of progress, in every society, in every family.” — Kofi Annan

 It’s important for patients as well as their family members to be educated and gain knowledge and understanding regarding the procedure(s) for their test, such as a nerve conduction study. Many times, patients and/or their family members want more information about the what and why of a procedure. Patients will often search the internet for information, in order to prepare for an NCS.  

In times past, outpatients were contacted as a reminder of their appointment along with giving them information about the procedure. Though, the new normal is calling to ask patients questions regarding his or her health before coming for an NCS/EMG rather than about calling to provide information to help them prepare for the test 

That said, calling to educate patients about an NCS in these times of uncertainty has become more prevalent, because not only do they want information about the testthey ask questions about safety measures, precautions they should take for having the procedure and how they will be protected during their testsAs with many healthcare facilities and clinics across the country, some Neurodiagnostic techs are interrogated in the same manner by patients and their family members, which is understandable.  

The point of focus for every patient should be one of compassion and respect:

  • Always address a patient by their name… not “Sweetie, Dear or Buddy” 
  • Be truthful when explaining the procedure to a patient  
  • Always treat patients like you want to be treated 
  • Never assume a patient wants to hear about your problems 
  • Create a connection through patience and kindness 
  • Developing communication skills 

So, at the end of the day, when asking myself the question; “Would you want someone like you treating you?” Yes, I would… 

The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education. — Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.


Pediatrics & Neonatology 

Author: Melanie Sewkarran, R. EEG T., CLTM 

Education. Back to School. Those words have taken on new meaning these days. Our family is navigating through virtual kindergarten and 2nd grade, so my thoughts and prayers are with all my fellow parents out there trying to adapt to the new “home school.” And if you happen to know a kindergarten teacher please give them a virtual hug from me – sitting through a class Google Meet with 16 kindergarteners is pretty close to painful (and I’m just an observer).  

As for educating at work, I’m used to that. We train techs from the ground up, so there are always classes, questions, explanations, and demonstrations. When it comes to our patients, since they’re all kids, we end up needing to educate them and their parents about the EEG. With the kids, we find it’s best to start at their level, so we need to be quick at assessing what that level is (Spoiler Alert: you can’t always tell by their age). If they’re infants, you definitely just focus on the parents, remembering to be especially delicate with the first-time moms. They just want to know that you aren’t going to hurt their baby and that you won’t leave bald patches that will haunt them forever.  For the toddlers, the demonstration seems to work best for us. Show them on their doll, stuffed animal, or parent what you’re going to do. We always have a few extra electrodes lying around so that we can make matching “hats” with their best friend. But in the end, they’re toddlers, so we just sort of expect them to protest and cry through the whole thing.  

As the kids get older, it’s good to try and guess what they’re “in to” so you can make associations. Make it a story. We can turn any EEG into a web-hat for the Spiderman fans, a spaghetti-hat for the foodies, a fairy crown, a Paw Patrol Helmet, a swim cap, a spacesuit, or even Elsa hair. The key is to keep fear at the door. Most tweens and teenagers just want you to do your thing and get it done – the less talking the more they can pretend it’s not happening. I’ve noticed that kids are typically more concerned with what you are doing than with why you are doing it. Parents, on the other hand, want you to read it for them, right then and there, along with explaining why they aren’t a good speller and then also interpret their dreams. We spend a lot of time trying to explain what EEGs are and what they are not. We let them know that the physicians are the ones qualified to interpret the data and the results will be available soon. Every family is different, and we do our best to tailor our education accordingly. Every parent just wants to know that their kids are OK. Since we can’t always promise that in this business, we at least make every effort to ensure that they understand what we are doing and have confidence that we are doing it well. 

So even though many of us have explained what EEGs are (and aren’t) thousands of times and in hundreds of different ways, keep it up! Don’t ever forget that education is power, and in the case of our patients and their families, hopefully, adds some peace as well.


Technologist Entrepreneurs 

Author: Janna Cheek, R. EEG T., CNIM 

WOW, has this year gone by fast or what?  I cannot believe fall is knocking at our door.  Many of us are still having to decide whether to homeschool, go to school or do virtual school, or whether we continue to stay quarantined at home or wear masks. There are so many views and variations of howwhat, and why, but this gives us the perfect opportunity to educate our patients and daily contacts even more.  So why not take it to the next level and make it easy to promote what we do by developing a conversation starter?  

I personally sew and do a lot of crafting and there are so many DIY mask-making videos on YouTube even “no-sew” styles.  Ironon lettering and symbols are also available.  At the beginning of this pandemic, I began making masks out of scrap material and had a basket full at the office for patients to take if needed or if they did not have one to wear.  I now carry extras in my car and in my purse to hand out or to have in a time of need, however recently I stepped it up after finding material with an image of a brain and also scored material with skeletons and bones like you would see on an x-ray. I began making masks with this material and iron on and even embroider statements such as “Ask me about your brain” or “Ask me what I do”, “Brain power”, “Brain fixer”, “I’m an EEGer”, “I’m an IONMer”, Do you have back pain?”  and boy, what responses and opportunities have I had to explain!  When I add bling or bright color contrasts,, it draws attention and small talk for educating not just our patients but the public.  I always have business cards available to hand out to the individual(s) who inquires.  Currently, I am designing cards (inexpensive, DIY) that give a description to neurodiagnostic modalities and for more information visit: www.aset.org and also to learn more about neurological monitoring during a back surgery go to www.asnm.org 

At the beginning of this pandemic, I just wanted everyone to have a mask available and I enjoy sewing so it was always easy for me to have several available.  Now I am finding that by just changing materials, colors, and a bit of bling, you draw in looks, reads, and conversations that educate people to the extent and depth of the industry of NDT.   

Always think outside the box before you “click”.


Acute/Critical Care Neurodiagnostics

Author: A. Todd Ham, BS, R. EEG T., CLTM

High-Frequency Filter Exercise: Assign the appropriate filter settings to each channel test epoch.  The answer choices are: 15 Hz; 30 Hz; 50 Hz and 70 Hz.

Low-Frequency Filter Exercise: Assign the appropriate filter settings to each channel test epoch.  The answer choices are: Off; 0.1 Hz; 0.5 Hz; 1 Hz; 3Hz and 5 Hz.

Answers

  • HF Filter: 15 Hz = B., 30 Hz = D., 50 Hz = A., 70 Hz = C.
  • LF Filter: OFF = B., 0.1 Hz = C., 0.5 Hz = A., 1 Hz = E., 3Hz = F., 5 Hz = D.
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